The Internet of Things: Bringing Revolution to Every Aspect of Life
The expression the Internet of Things is used to denote the network of material or tangible objects – objects or things. All these things are implanted with software, sensor, and other tools to link and swap information or data with other gadgets and setups on the Internet. The Internet of Things has applications in areas like the manufacturing industry, agriculture, armed forces, infrastructure, healthcare and medical sector, conveyance, smart homes, and eldercare.
What is IoT?
So, IoT or the Internet of Things implies the billions of tangible tools and gadgets across the globe that are currently joined to the Internet, all gathering and distributing data. The arrival of the integrated circuit and the omnipresence of wireless networks around the world have made it possible.
There has been a significant transformation of things as a result of the overlap of various technologies, machine learning (ML), real-time analytics, embedded systems, and commodity sensors. The conventional domains of wireless sensor networks, embedded systems, automation (comprising building and home automation), control systems, and other fields collectively support to facilitate the Internet of Things.
A brief history of the Internet of Things
The principal idea of a network consisting of smart gadgets took the center stage way back in 1982. A vending machine for Coca-Cola at Carnegie Mellon University was the oldest Internet-linked gadget. It could inform about its stock and whether freshly loaded cans were chilled or not. Mark D. Weiser (CTO and computer scientist) submitted a research document named The Computer of the 21st Century in 1991 on the topic of ubiquitous computing and educational sites like PerCom and UbiComp generated the modern idea of the Internet of things.
The idea of the Internet of things was first elaborately explained by Reza Raji in 1994 in the IEEE Spectrum magazine. From 1993-1997, many corporations came up with suggestions and solutions such as NEST by Novell and At Work by Microsoft. The domain of the Internet of Things gathered impetus at the time when D2D (device-to-device) interaction was visualized by William Nelson Joy (US-based venture capitalist and computer engineer) in the form of a segment of the
“Six Webs” model, exhibited at the Davos 1999 World Economic Forum.
The expression Internet of Things was invented by British technologist and co-founder of the Auto-ID hub of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Kevin Ashton who previously served Procter and Gamble. However, Ashton fancies the expression “Internet for things”.
IoT applications are diverse. Smart homes and elder care are two major consumer applications. As far as organizational applications are concerned, IoT technology is used in transportation, healthcare and medical, home and building automation, and V2X communications. Industrial applications of IoT technology include but are not limited to agriculture, manufacturing, and the maritime industry. IoT has applications in infrastructure as well. Areas like environmental monitoring, energy management, and metropolitan scale deployments have IoT utilization. The armed forces feature significant applications of the Internet of Things. Ocean of Things and the Internet of Battlefield Things are two prominent domains of the military where IoT is implemented.
In the consumer marketplace, IoT technology generally are articles related to the idea of a smart home. Prominent examples include gadgets and contrivances like thermostats, lighting fittings, cameras, house security installations, and other household devices. All these gadgets aid one or more typical ecosystems. They can be regulated through gadgets linked to that particular ecosystem or networks like smart speakers and smartphones. The healthcare system frequently uses IoT technology.
Despite so many areas of applications, there are certain downsides related to the expansion of the usage of IoT, particularly in the domains of security and data privacy. As an outcome, public administration agencies and various industrial sectors have taken initiatives to deal with these concerns, taking into consideration the simultaneous growth of global benchmarks.
What is an IoT platform?
An IoT platform is a type of middleware (software that fills the void between other tools, apps, and databases for offering integrated facilities to the consumers, also termed as software glue) that is present amid the strata of IoT Accesses (and therefore data) and IoT gadgets from one point of view and apps, which it aids to develop on the other hand. Thus, IoT platforms are termed as AEPs or Application Enablement Platforms as well.
What are IoT devices?
IoT devices are essentially fragments of hardware, for example, actuators, sensors, machines, appliances, or gadgets that have been encoded for particular uses. They can also send information via the Internet and other forms of networks.
Prominent examples of IoT devices are the following:
- Biometric cybersecurity scanners
- Super-high speed wireless Internet
- Wireless inventory/stock monitors/trackers
- Smart factory apparatus
- Wearable health monitors
- Autonomous agri-business kit
- Smart home security systems
- Related appliances
The status data is the most fundamental and predominant form of IoT data. The majority of IoT gadgets produce status data. These data are procured in the form of raw data. Subsequently, they are utilized for highly complicated evaluation. Other than this, there are automation data and location data.
IoT sensors: Why are they used?
A wide variety of IoT sensors is there. They are used for identifying and assessing different material phenomena like pressure and heat. They can also evaluate the five senses of human beings: hearing, vision, taste, touch, and smell. The examples of IoT sensors that identify material phenomena are the following:
- Humidness and temperature sensors
- Gyro sensors
- Acceleration sensors
The examples of IoT sensors that identify the five senses of human beings are the following:
- Sound pressure sensors
- Thermistors (thermal resistors)
- Imaging sensors
- Odor sensors
Besides, there are several other sensors. The form of sensors varies according to the object they sense.